Universe is made up from stories, not atoms.
Europe in 1930s saw general tensions growing as a result of WW l and German unhappiness with Treaty of Versailles. Germans were arming themselves and obviously getting ready to change balance of power. Secrecy of military communications was of utmost importance and ways to accomplish this were feverishly worked on.
The brainchild of German engineering was Enigma. It was a mechanical – electrical rotor coding machine, resembling a typewriter, developed right after WW l. It was initially used commercially, but later, a very sophisticated version was developed for military. It was so good, that Germans didn’t believe Enigma’s code could ever be broken.
Enter Polish Cipher Bureau. Throughout our history we have had constant battles with Germany and Russia. Poland is sandwiched between two superpowers and each time they were in conflict (this happened a lot) willingly or not we were involved. WW ll ended in 1918 and the very next year we were invaded by Soviet Russia. Reading of Russian coded messages with the help from Cipher Bureau contributed to our holding off military offensive of our eastern “friends”.
A few years later the Bureau’s attention was turned to the west. The growing German military might obviously was a big concern to Poland. Their military communication was intercepted, but decoding was a challenge. Breaking the Enigma code was not done however until December 1932. It was a team of young Polish mathematicians – Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski, who did the job. One time break was not enough. They had to keep up with constant modifications and “upgrades” of the German system. Knowing the value of this information in fighting the Germans, the Polish government called a meeting with British and French military intelligence officers. On July 25, 1939 all data together with Enigma machine were presented to our western allies. WW ll started on September 1st the same year.
Breaking Enigma’s code didn’t help us defend from German invasion, it was over in just 5 weeks. All three mathematicians were able to escape through Romania and ended up working first in France and then in Britain for British intelligence.
Many countries knew about Enigma and many were trying to solve its code. Alan Turing was a brilliant British mathematician working in the code center Bletchley Park in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire. He was a head of Hut8, section assigned to break German codes. He benefited greatly from the work of Polish mathematicians and their device Cryptologic Bomb (Bomba Kryptologiczna) used to decipher coded messages. After the war he was awarded Order of the British Empire by George Vl for his wartime services, but details of his work remained secret for years.
Because of secrecy imposed on code breaking informations after the war, credit for breaking code of Enigma was distributed freely by Allied governments to anybody involved in this work.
After the war ended Rajewski came back to Poland to be reunited with his family. As all repatriates from the West he was heavily investigated by communist security forces and recommended for dismissal from his job. He ended up working as an accountant.
It was difficult for him to fight a skewed public opinion by misinformation after the war, particularly from communist Poland. He knew well, that the work he had done in deciphering soviet codes wouldn’t bring him any favors with Russians controlling our security system those days.
Finally books by Gustave Bertrand “Enigma” (1973) and by F.W.Winterbotham “The Ultra Secret” (1974) opened the flood of information about work on Enigma, but still many inaccuracies remained not corrected. Rajewski received the highest polish Order “Polonia Restituta” a year and a half before his death at the age of 74.
Alan Turing on the other hand was working as a scientist on mathematical biology, with full support of his government until his death. His personal life however, was not very happy . In 1954 at the age of 41, he committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. At his bedside investigators found a bitten apple, which was thought to be poisoned (it was not checked for cyanide).
Turing was influential in developing computer science and is widely regarded as the father of computer. There is a story crediting the bitten apple found at his bedside to be an inspiration for now iconic Apple’s logo. I don’t know if it’s true, but sounds good to me.
Success has many fathers, but failure is an orphan.